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Evolution of 2nd generation hybrid neuro-symbolic AI

1990 - 1994: early research on hybrid AI systems

In the early 1990's, the complementary benefits of combining neural network "soft" capabilities with the "hard" constraints of knowledge-based expert systems were being explored in both government research and commercial product activities. James M. Mazzu (CEO of Digie Inc.) and Dr. Alper K. Caglayan (Advisor to Digie Inc.) conducted extensive research illuminating the benefits of hybrid AI systems, including early applications in smart aircraft structures, nuclear plant monitoring, target recognition, remote sensing, and a neural/expert architecture for task allocation.

1992: NueX - hybrid neural network/expert system tool

Their work initially resulted in the first commercially available tool for creating hybrid neural/expert AI systems, called NueX.

1993: Open Sesame! - 1st generation hybrid neuro-symbolic AI

Released in 1993, Open Sesame! was the world's first hybrid learning agent for the Apple Macintosh, critically acclaimed and box-shipped to over 35,000 users. It used neural networks to identify user behavior patterns and symbolic expert systems to interpret the patterns and generate personalized rules to automate tasks, making it a first-generation hybrid neuro-symbolic AI system.

1996: Learn Sesame - intelligence engine 

Based on extensive user feedback from Open Sesame! 1.0 and deployment challenges from Open Sesame! 2.0, lessons were learned that led to the development of the Learn Sesame intelligence engine, which utilized statistical event clustering over traditional neural network methods.

2017: Digie - multi-agent conversational AI

Independently continuing his doctoral research, James M. Mazzu created a novel self-organizing architecture for symbolic knowledge representation and reasoning (KRR) that captures knowledge by semantic understanding. The resulting multi-agent platform, named Digie, builds user knowledge and insights through natural conversation, applies expert insights/advice based on personal situations, and manages the sharing of knowledge between trusted friends. Digie enables a network of personal AI agents, and was initially applied to the travel domain.

2024: Digie + GPT - 2nd generation hybrid neuro-symbolic AI

With the arrival of highly effective LLM systems such as GPT, Digie's symbolic AI now leverages complementary neural network capabilities for personal knowledge capture and multi-agent domain knowledge access, making it one of the first 2nd generation hybrid neuro-symbolic AI systems. Digie's unique hybrid multi-agent capabilities provide a truly personal AI that enables specialized AI channels from faith-based dialogues to crafting personal travel experiences.